Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center
104 N. Spring Street
Manchester TN 37355
Mission Statement
Our mission is to serve children who are victims of severe abuse through prevention, instruction and intervention.
Leadership
CEO/Executive Director Ms. Joyce Prusak
Board Chair Mrs. Ivy Petty
Board Chair Company Affiliation ServPro of Coffee County
History & Background
Year of Incorporation 2004
Organization's type of tax exempt status 501-C3
Financial Summary
Graph: Expense Breakdown Graph - All Years
 
 
Projected Expenses $285,498.00
Projected Annual Revenue $285,498.00 (2018)
Statements
Mission Our mission is to serve children who are victims of severe abuse through prevention, instruction and intervention.
Background Coffee County, situated in the South Central region of the state is home to approximately 50,000 Tennesseans. Manchester and Tullahoma are the two largest towns in the county. Forty-seven percent of the population lives in a rural or isolated setting. Less than seven percent of the populations are comprised of people of color, twenty-two percent have a disability and fourteen percent are senior citizens. In 2005, an organization called the Coffee County Church Women United recognized the need to consolidate the efforts of various agencies that provide assistance to children and families who are victims of child abuse. Thus, the idea to create a Child Advocacy center for Coffee County was born. The Coffee County Church Women United held an organizational meeting attended by representatives of the Manchester and Tullahoma Police Departments, the Sheriff of Coffee County, a representative of the Prosecutor’s Office, a representative for the Department of Children’s Services, the Family Resource Directors of Manchester and Coffee County Schools, a medical doctor, a counselor from Centerstone Mental Health Center, as well as other interested citizens. All attendees agreed on the need for a consolidation of services and a local Child Advocacy Center. A protocol was developed and an interagency agreement was signed by the District Attorney, Manchester and Tullahoma Police Chiefs, Coffee County Sheriff, Regional Administrator for South Central Regional Department of Children’s Services, Regional Director of Centerstone Mental Health Services, and the President of the Coffee County Church Women United. A board of directors was selected and The Coffee County Children’s Advocacy Center, Inc. was established in November 2004 as a 501(c) 3 non-profit organization. The City of Tullahoma originally provided a temporary home for the Coffee County Children’s Advocacy Center at no charge, but since then, the Center has relocated to Manchester to be closer to law enforcement, the court system, and the District Attorney's office. The Coffee County Children’s Advocacy center employs a full time executive director, forensic interviewer, family advocate and prevention coordinator.  We rely on the generous support of our community in addition to grants from the State of Tennessee and various foundations.
Impact

Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center is a nationally accredited Children's Advocacy Center and has been providing services since the summer of 2005.  Since opening the doors of the Center in 2005, over 3,400 children have been helped.  

 
In 2016, 297 children in total received direct intervention services from the CCCAC. 151 of the children served were forensically interviewed at the CCCAC, 29 children received trauma focused mental health therapy at the CCCAC, and 57 children received specialized medical exams at the CCCAC. Furthermore, 184 children received criminal justice support and advocacy. Crisis counseling was provided to 147 and personal advocacy was provided to 332 children and/or non-offending caregivers. All services were provided to the children and families free of charge.  

Of the children who received services in 2016 at our Center, 71% of the children we served were alleged victims of sex abuse. 46% of the children served were six years old or younger, 36% were between the ages of seven and twelve, and 18% of the children were between the ages of thirteen and eighteen. 58% of the children served were females and 42% were males.

In addition to our on-site services, we continue to maintain a strong presence in our community. CCCAC conducts child abuse prevention programs in all of our local elementary schools using Yello Dyno, an evidence informed child abuse prevention program that is age appropriate. We reached 2,350 children with this program last year and over 16,400 children since launching the school based program.  Additionally, CCCAC provided prevention programs for over 300 adults in the community.

In the coming year, CCCAC's goal is to be reaccredited by the National Children's Alliance.   CCCAC has completed the application and site visit required as part of the reaccreditation process and will find out the status of the application in early 2018.  The Board of Directors is also committed to updating the agency's strategic plan to better strengthen the Center for the future.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Needs 1. Additional funding for services for the child victims and the non-offending caregiver(s) especially for mental health services. 2. Funding for prevention education in our schools and community. 3. Training opportunities and funding for training for our Child Protective Investigative Team 4. A capital campaign to pay off our facility, so, all resources can be dedicated to serving children and families that are in need of our programs. 5. Assistance in identifying groups and organizations to take part in our prevention programs.
Other ways to donate, support, or volunteer
Checks can be mailed to:
Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center
104 N. Spring Street
Manchester, TN 37355
 
Also, in-kind donations of items that can be used at the Center such as drink boxes for children, individually wrapped snacks, paper towels, toilet paper, etc... can be dropped off at :
104 N. Spring Street
Manchester, TN  37355
 
Due to confidentiality issues, we limit the number of volunteers on site at the Center.  However, volunteers are always needed to help with our special events and fundraisers.  Please feel free to email us or call us if you are interested in volunteering for one of our events. 
Service Categories
Primary Organization Category Human Services / Children's and Youth Services
Secondary Organization Category Crime & Legal - Related / Alliances & Advocacy
Areas of Service
Areas Served
TN - Coffee
Manchester, Tullahoma, Beech Grove, Hillsboro.  We also do courtesy interviews for children in other counties when requested by the Department of Children's Services or law enforcement especially for Franklin and Grundy counties as they do not have access to a Child Advocacy Center. Additionally, the Our Kids satellite clinic is available to serve children in Coffee, Warren, Franklin, Grundy, Bedford, Moore and Lincoln counties as needed.
Board Chair Statement

 Since we opened our doors in 2005, we have had more and more children and their families come to the Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center each month. Because we are a small Center in a small community, our resources for these children and the non-offending caregivers are often limited. Despite that, we were finally able to expand our services to become a full service children’s advocacy center by opening a satellite clinic of Our Kids and increasing access to specialized medical exams for child victims of abuse in 2011. 

The vision of the ladies who started the Center was to have a facility where a child who was abused could receive all the services he/she needed. This included forensic interviews, medical exams and mental health services.  We are proud to have made that vision a reality, but have not lost sight of the fact that there is so much more that could be done to help the children in our community. The more help we can provide the children, the stronger and healthier our community will be in the future..

 

CEO Statement

We have come a long way over the past ten years, but we still are not done. If you are familiar with the Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center, you will remember when we started with just an executive director and served only as a child friendly place where forensic interviews of children could take place. Well, now, we not only serve as the place for forensic interviews, but we provide the trained personnel to conduct the interviews as well. This takes the responsibility off of the Department of Children’s Services or law enforcement and allows for someone who is specialized in “talking to kids” to do the interview. Furthermore, we have a Child and Family Advocate who works with the child and non-offending caregiver/family to assess any needs that they may have and help them identify resources to meet those needs. We provide evidence based prevention programs in the schools and employ a Prevention Coordinator to implement this program as well as a program for adults on child sexual abuse.  Additionally, the CCCAC also provides trauma focused therapy to children who have been victims of abuse. The Our Kids satellite medical clinic set up in 2011 essentially made us a full service advocacy center and was the final piece in our puzzle to make us eligible for accreditation by the National Children's Alliance.  We achieved that goal in 2012 when the CCCAC received full acceditation by the National Children's Alliance which signified that we are providing the best evidenced based care possible for children who are victims of abuse.

 
We are so proud to be able to offer the programs that we do, but all of these programs and services wouldn’t be possible without the support of so many. Since joining the Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center in March of 2007, I have been amazed at both the amount of support from the community and the desperate need of many of the children in Coffee County who have been victims of abuse or neglect. Every dollar donated to the Center helps us make sure that our doors are open to those who need us most.
 
“One person can make a difference and every person should try.” John Fitzgerald Kennedy

 

Programs
Description Provide a comfortable, private, child-friendly setting for children to be interviewed regarding severe abuse.  A full-time trained forensic interviewer is on staff to conduct the interviews of child victims.  These interviews are conducted in a manner that is non-leading and defensible in court.  Interviews are watched live by law enforcement and the Department of Children's Services.  This helps reduce the trauma on the child from keeping the child from having to tell his/her story multiple times to multiple people.
Budget 55000
Category Human Services, General/Other
Population Served Children and Youth (0 - 19 years), ,
Short Term Success Short term success is that all children who are possible victims of severe abuse have access to a children's advocacy center and a forensic interview if appropriate.  
Long term Success By having a full time Forensic Interview at our Center, our goal is to long term reduce the trauma of a child abuse disclosure on a child and his/her non-offending family.  Our safe, neutral facility offers a location to be interviewed other than the school principal's office or the local police department.  This is where interviews were often conducted prior to Child Advocacy Centers.  That often made children believe they were in trouble and often fearful to tell what had happened to them.  Our Forensic Interviewer is trained to talk to children and to get the story from the child in his or her own words.  This interview is recorded and then can be used throughout the investigation.  A few years back, the State of Tennessee ruled that these interviews could be admissible in criminal court, so, the hope is that the interviews will help in prosecutions.  
Program Success Monitored By Success is monitored by the number of children receiving services through the CCCAC compared to the number of severe child abuse referrals made in Coffee County.  The goal is to offer services to all children in Coffee County who are victims of severe abuse.  
Description

Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center facilitates and coordinates the Child Protective Investigative Team in Coffee County. As part of this program, the CAC is responsible for coordinating the sharing of information between team members as much as possible. A coordinated response to child abuse cases not only reduces the trauma on the child and family during the investigation, but also serves to provide more efficient referrals for mental health and medical treatment if needed.

 

Budget 10000
Category Crime & Legal, General/Other Sexual Assault Prevention
Population Served Children and Youth (0 - 19 years), ,
Short Term Success Short-term success is measured by the number of child abuse cases that result in a joint investigation by law enforcement and the Department of Children's Services.  The goal is to reduce the trauma on the child and family after an allegation of abuse, so, having both agencies involved in the investigation during all stages is essential to lessening the burden on the child and family.  
Long term Success Long-term success is that all children who have been alleged victims of severe child abuse are brought to the CCCAC for services and that a joint investigation is conducted by the investigative team.  
Program Success Monitored By Success is measured through satisfaction surveys completed by members of the Child Protective Investigative Team.  These surveys help the CCCAC determine any issues with the collaborative approach.  CCCAC also tracks the number of forensic interviews completed at the Center and which of the investigative partners are present for the interviews. 
Description

The Child and Family Advocate works primarily with the children and families in crisis that we serve at the CAC. She is responsible for conducting a needs assessment with the family and creating an action plan if needed. The Child and Family Advocate assesses each family that requests services to determine if there is a problem with drugs or alcohol in the home and will provide resources or education as needed. The Child and Family Advocate is also responsible for facilitating the sharing of information among members of the Child Protective Investigative Team to ensure that the child and non-offending family’s needs are being met. The Child and Family Advocate regularly makes referrals for services for the families and children and will assist them as needed in making appointments and may assist them in applying for Victim’s Compensation funds. 

 

Budget 50000
Category Mental Health, Substance Abuse Programs, General/other Sexual Assault Crisis Intervention
Population Served Children and Youth (0 - 19 years), Adults,
Short Term Success Short term success is that children and families receive the services they may need to begin the healing process as a result of child abuse.  This may include referrals to other services at the CCCAC or outside services that may be needed by the family.  Success is also that the child and family have a better understanding of the investigation process as well as what to expect as a result of the abuse.  
Program Success Monitored By Success is monitored through client satisfaction surveys as well as through monitoring the number of services provided to children and families.  
Description CCCAC provides trauma focused mental health services for children and non-offending families/caregivers to begin the healing process.  Services include TF-CBT therapy and EMDR therapy.  Preference for services is given to children and families who lack mental health insurance coverage and to those who do not have the ability to travel for services. 
Budget 30000
Category Mental Health, Substance Abuse Programs, General/other Child Abuse Counseling
Population Served Children and Youth (0 - 19 years), Families,
Short Term Success Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center anticipates providing evidence based trauma focused therapy to twenty-four (24) children who are victims of severe abuse and their non-offending families. At this point, we are estimating that each client will receive an average of ten to twelve sessions with some children needing more or less than this estimate. Of the twenty-four (24) children who receive services, we expect eighteen (18) to complete at least six therapy sessions.

We anticipate 90% of the respondents to our satisfaction survey will express satisfaction with the therapy services provided after the completion of at least six sessions of therapy or upon termination of services if for some reason the child or family receives fewer than six sessions.
Long term Success The ultimate success for this program is to have children who have been victims of abuse grow into healthy, fully functional adults without the long lasting effects of trauma.  Without proper intervention, many victims of child abuse develop certain behaviors such as addiction to drugs or alcohol, higher teenage pregnancy rates or experience higher rates of incarceration.  
Program Success Monitored By Success is monitored by the therapist who evaluates each child and family when they enter the therapy program.  Progress is measured over time by hopefully reducing the trauma symptoms exhibited by the child during the initial intake.  Additionally, client satisfaction services are used to measure the client's satisfaction with the therapy services offered.
Description The goal of our prevention program is to provide children with the tools necessary for them to understand what are appropriate and inappropriate touches and how to say "no." It is our goal to provide this program in elementary schools across the county as well as day care centers and preschools.   The program we are using teaches children about "tricky people."  The lesson is that it is not who the person is that you need to worry about, but what the person asks you to do and that even someone you know well can be a "tricky person" if he/she asks you to do something that makes you uncomfortable.  This is an important lesson because we know it is more often than not someone the child knows who hurts him/her.
Budget 27000
Category Human Services, General/Other Children & Youth Services
Population Served Children and Youth (0 - 19 years), Adults,
Short Term Success 99% of the children who participated in the Yello Dyno, school based prevention program, showed a retention of the material.  This means they were able to identify someone who might mean them harm, know who to go to for help, and what to do if they feel if they are being asked to do something they are not comfortable with at the time.  
Long term Success Ultimately, our goal would be to reduce the number of children abused in our county. However, we have found the more successful we are in educating both children and adults on abuse, more cases are reported.  So, we are thankful that more children and families are getting the help that they need, but at the same time experience some disappointment when abuse numbers remain high.   Child abuse is something that will never end, but helping children and the community understand that there are resources available that can help us break the cycle of abuse are critical to having a stronger and healthier community as a whole.
Program Success Monitored By To measure the retention of material for our child abuse prevention program, Yello Dyno, pre and post tests are administered to the children.  Additionally, pre and post tests are used for the Darkness to Light, Stewards of Children program.  These results allow us to measure the success of the program in delivering the lessons.  Long term successes are hard to measure as we hope there would eventually be a decrease in child abuse cases.  However, at the same time, the more education and awareness that is done, often times, you will see more reports of abuse because people know who to call, who can help, etc... 
CEO Comments
Since we opened our doors in June of 2005, we have seen an ongoing and increasing demand for the services provided at the Center.  I am proud of the work that has been and the community support that we have received. Child abuse is a community problem and it is only through community support and working together that we can truly make a difference!
 
Often times, our biggest challenges are funding and seeing institutional change that will allow children to grow up in healthy environments free from the threat of abuse and neglect.  As a Center, we are working everyday to help people understand the long term costs to a child, family and community as a whole when a child has been abused.  Making an investment in a child early on is so important and having people understand that continues to be an ongoing challenge. 
Board Chair
Board Chair Mrs. Ivy Petty
Company Affiliation ServPro of Coffee County
Term Aug 2017 to June 2018
Email ivypetty79@yahoo.com
Board Members
NameAffiliationStatus
Ms. Beth Allen retiredVoting
Mrs. Bethany Arnold EXIT RealtyVoting
Ms. Barbara Arp Former Coffee County TrusteeVoting
Mr. Ray Burns United Regional Medical CenterVoting
Mr Rob Clutter Thunder RadioVoting
Mrs. Vanessa Fults Voting
Ms. Margaret Henderson RNRegistered NurseVoting
Mrs. Lauren Jernigan Coffee County SchoolsVoting
Ms. Ivy Petty Fantasy 101.5 RadioVoting
Mrs. Tracey Weibert US Bankruptcy TrusteeVoting
Board Demographics - Ethnicity
African American/Black 1
Asian American/Pacific Islander 0
Caucasian 9
Hispanic/Latino 0
Native American/American Indian 0
Other 0
Board Demographics - Gender
Male 2
Female 8
Unspecified 0
Governance
Board Term Lengths 3
Board Term Limits 2
Board Meeting Attendance % 72%
Does the organization have written Board Selection Criteria? Under Development
Does the organization have a written Conflict of Interest Policy? Yes
Percentage of Board Members making Monetary Contributions 100%
Percentage of Board Members making In-Kind Contributions 55%
Does the Board include Client Representation? No
Number of Full Board Meetings Annually 12
Standing Committees
Development / Fund Raising
Executive
Nominating
Strategic Planning
Risk Management Provisions
Commercial General Liability
Commercial General Liability & D and O & Umbrella or Excess & Automobile & Professional
Directors & Officers Policy
Workers Compensation & Employers' Liability
CEO Comments

Over the last few years, CCCAC has experienced both challenges and successes.  In recent years, CCCAC has often had to worry about committed support from local government agencies.  Despite losing funding a few years ago, CCCAC was able to get this funding restored.  Additionally, CCCAC was able to work with the county commission to implement a court fee that would benefit the CCCAC.  Although this has not generated as much revenue as the Board has hoped, the additional funding has helped strengthen the Center financially.   Furthermore, the Center refinanced the mortgage on the building in the past year and has a plan in place to have the facility fully paid off in ten years or less.  All of this is essential in order to strengthen the Center as a whole so that the staff can continue to focus on providing the prevention and intervention services so greatly needed by our clients and the community.  

Everyone involved with the Center is thankful for the support received from the community.  
Executive Director/CEO
Executive Director Ms. Joyce Prusak
Term Start Mar 2007
Email joyce@coffeecountycac.org
Experience
Voting Project Manager/Public Policy Analyst/Media Coordinator- Disability Law & Advocacy Center of Tennessee
Director of TN Events (fundraising)- Bob Clement for U.S. Senate
Surrogate Scheduling Coordinator- Gore 2000 Presidential Campaign
Deputy to the Executive Director- Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
Former CEOs
NameTerm
Mr. Mike Lewis June 2005 - Nov 2006
Staff
Full Time Staff 4
Part Time Staff 0
Volunteers 30
Contractors 1
Retention Rate 100%
Plans & Policies
Does the organization have a documented Fundraising Plan? Under Development
Does the organization have an approved Strategic Plan? Yes
Number of years Strategic Plan Considers 3
When was Strategic Plan adopted? June 2014
In case of a change in leadership, is a Management Succession plan in place? Yes
Does the organization have a Policies and Procedures Plan? Yes
Does the organization have a Nondiscrimination Policy? Yes
Affiliations
AffiliationYear
Manchester Chamber of Commerce2007
Tullahoma Chamber of Commerce2007
Tennessee Chapter of Children's Advocacy Centers2005
National Children's Alliance - Full Member2012
External Assessments and Accreditations
External Assessments and Accreditations
Assessment/AccreditationYear
National Children's Alliance - Accreditation2012
Awards
Award/RecognitionOrganizationYear
Volunteer AwardHead Start2007
Senior Staff
Title Executive Director
Experience/Biography
CEO Comments
Child abuse is a grown up problem and a serious problem in our small community.  Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center offers free trainings for professionals and community members on spotting the signs of abuse and reporting abuse.  Additionally, we provide child abuse prevention education in the three local school systems.  This prevention program is aimed at breaking the cycle of abuse that we see daily. 
All of the programs that we provide at the Center and in the community are provided free of charge. We currently provide forensic interviews of children, family and victim advocacy services, and mental health services in addition to the prevention program.  In June 2011, we became a satellite clinic of Our Kids.  This allows children in our county and surrounding counties who have been sexually abused to receive medical exams locally as opposed to having to travel to Nashville for these specialized services. Currently, this clinic is open to five counties in the area in addition to Coffee County.
We rely primarily on state grants, private foundations and community support.  The support of the community is critical as we try to meet the needs of the children and families that we serve.
 In 2012, the CCCAC achieved a major milestone and became officially accredited through the National Children's Alliance.  After completing an extensive application process and going through a site review, the CCCAC was notified in November of 2012 that we met or exceeded all the standards set forth by the National Children's Alliance for providing services to children who are victims of abuse. The Center reapplied for accreditation earlier in 2017 under the new accreditation standards and had its site review in November 2017.   Results of this site review should be available in February 2018 at the latest.
 
In addition to providing services to children in Coffee County, the CCCAC has been instrumental in providing services to children who live in the 12th Judicial District in Tennessee.  This area currently does not have a children's advocacy center and for years have relied on centers in surrounding counties.  During this last year, a more formalized coverage plan was developed for this district which outlines a plan for children in Franklin and Grundy counties who are victims of severe abuse to be offered services by the CCCAC.  It has always been the philosophy of the CCCAC to offer services to any child victim who needs them regardless of their address or where the abuse happened.  
 
 
Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year Start July 01 2017
Fiscal Year End June 30 2018
Projected Revenue $285,498.00
Projected Expenses $285,498.00
Endowment Spending Policy N/A
Endowment Spending Percentage (if selected) 0%
Detailed Financials
Expense Allocation
Fiscal Year201720162015
Program Expense$196,740$193,079$188,266
Administration Expense$40,983$47,321$46,409
Fundraising Expense$20,266$22,534$24,603
Payments to Affiliates--$0$0
Total Revenue/Total Expenses1.060.970.97
Program Expense/Total Expenses76%73%73%
Fundraising Expense/Contributed Revenue7%9%10%
Assets and Liabilities
Fiscal Year201720162015
Total Assets$276,953$269,693$270,200
Current Assets$79,470$64,822$69,784
Long-Term Liabilities$146,251$111,112$118,619
Current Liabilities$43,375$43,498$27,471
Total Net Assets$130,702$115,083$124,110
Short Term Solvency
Fiscal Year201720162015
Current Ratio: Current Assets/Current Liabilities1.831.492.54
Long Term Solvency
Fiscal Year201720162015
Long-Term Liabilities/Total Assets53%41%44%
Top Funding Sources
Fiscal Year201720162015
Top Funding Source & Dollar AmountContributions, Gifts, and Grants $228,374Foundations and Corporations $134,000Grants $132,000
Second Highest Funding Source & Dollar AmountFundraising Events $44,667Contributions, Gifts and Grants $76,875Contributions $80,601
Third Highest Funding Source & Dollar AmountNoncash Contributions $360Fundraising Events $42,389Fundraising Events $37,272
Capital Campaign
Is the organization currently conducting a Capital Campaign for an endowment or the purchase of a major asset? No
Capital Campaign Anticipated in Next 5 Years? Yes
State Charitable Solicitations Permit
TN Charitable Solicitations Registration Yes - Expires Dec 2018
Solicitations Permit
CS Permit 2018
Organization Comments
The Children's Advocacy Center is in the process of working with the Center for Non-Profit Management to strengthen our Board of Directors, develop a better strategic plan to address such issues as sustainability and strengthen our funding base.  A number of new fundraiser ideas are also being pursued in an effort to raise more money for the services the Center provides.  The cost of our building and insurance still are the biggest expenses outside of salaries, but salaries are mostly covered by grant funds.  It is general operating expenses that additional funds need to be identified for as we move forward.
GivingMatters.com Financial Comments
In addition to 501(c)3 Letter of Determination, please see Coffee County CAC's Advance Ruling Letter (on the Other Documents page).
 
Financial data taken from Audited Financial Statements.
Financials completed by Edmondson, Betzler & Dame, PLLC.
Schedule B removed to protect donor privacy.
Comment provided by Nicole Rose 11/17/2017.
Nonprofit Coffee County Children's Advocacy Center
Address 104 N. Spring Street
Manchester, TN 37355
Primary Phone (931) 723-8888
CEO/Executive Director Ms. Joyce Prusak
Board Chair Mrs. Ivy Petty
Board Chair Company Affiliation ServPro of Coffee County
Year of Incorporation 2004

Related Information

Crime Prevention

In today's climate of economic uncertainty, Middle Tennesseans may be concerned about the potential of rising crime. Fortunately, there are ways we can work together to protect ourselves and our communities from crime. Crime prevention cannot be achieved by one body alone. Rather, effective crime prevention results from a web of institutions, agencies, and daily life — including communities, families, schools, and the legal institutions of policing and criminal justice.

Adoption & Foster Care

Parents dropping their kids off at school may not realize their child sits next to a young person in the foster care system. Students may not realize their classmate is not going home to his or her own parents, but to a group home or foster care placement. No sign on this child would alert anyone that he or she has likely suffered abuse, neglect, or abandonment.

Youth Violence

In Tennessee, gang presence has been on the rise since the late 1980s and early 1990s, when gangs first made a concerted push into the state. Since 2011, police have identified at least 5,000 gang members in Davidson County, and gang-related crimes have increased by 25%. Meanwhile, cities with 50,000 or fewer inhabitants have seen gang-related crimes triple in frequency nationally since 2005.